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What Causes Uterine Sarcoma?

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Doctors don't know exactly what causes most uterine sarcomas, but certain risk factors have been identified. Research is helping to learn more about this rare disease.

Scientists continue to learn about changes in the DNA of certain genes that help when normal uterine cells develop into sarcomas.

For example,

  • Changes in the RB1, TP53, and PTEN genes have been found in uterine leiomyosarcomas.
  • Low‐grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is often linked with an abnormal gene called JAZF 1SUZ12.
  • High‐grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) has been linked with the abnormal gene YWHAENUTM.

You can learn more about research being done in What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Alektiar KM, Abu-Rustum NR, and Fleming GF. Chapter 75- Cancer of the Uterine Body. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2019.

Tsuyoshi H, Yoshida Y. Molecular biomarkers for uterine leiomyosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma. Cancer Sci. 2018;109(6):1743-1752. doi:10.1111/cas.13613.

Last Revised: September 20, 2022