Monoclonal Antibodies to Treat Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Antibodies are proteins made by the body’s immune system to help fight infections. Man-made versions, called monoclonal antibodies, can be designed to attack a specific target, such as a substance on the surface of lymphocytes.
Blinatumomab (Blincyto™) is a special kind of monoclonal antibody because it can attach to 2 different proteins at the same time. One part of blinatumomab attaches to the CD19 protein, which is found on B-cells, including some leukemia and lymphoma cells. Another part attaches to CD3, a protein found on immune cells called T cells. By binding to both of these proteins, this drug brings the cancer cells and immune cells together, which is thought to cause the immune system to attack the cancer cells.
This drug is used to treat B-cell types of ALL. It is given into a vein (IV) as a continuous infusion over 28 days. It may be repeated again for more cycles with 2 weeks off in between. Because of certain serious side effects that occur more often during the first few times it is given, the patient usually needs to be treated in a hospital or clinic for the beginning of at least the first 2 cycles.
The most common side effects are fever, headache, swelling of the feet and hands, nausea, tremor, rash, constipation, and low blood potassium levels. It can also cause low white blood cell counts, which increase the risk of serious infection.
This drug can also cause neurologic problems, such as seizures, difficulty in speaking or slurred speech, passing out, confusion, and loss of balance.
Some patients have serious reactions during the infusion of this drug. Symptoms can include feeling lightheaded or dizzy (due to low blood pressure), headache, nausea, fever or chills, shortness of breath, and/or wheezing. Let you healthcare team know if you develop any of these symptoms, as this reaction can be life-threatening. If you do have a reaction, the drug will be stopped while the reaction is treated.
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Last Medical Review: December 2, 2014 Last Revised: February 18, 2016
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