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Wilms tumor is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. Each year, about 500 to 600 new cases of Wilms tumor are diagnosed in the United States. This number has been fairly stable for many years. About 5% of all cancers in children are Wilms tumors.
Wilms tumors tend to occur in young children. The average age of children when they are diagnosed is about 3 to 4 years. These tumors become less common as children grow older. They're very rare in adults, although cases have been reported.
Wilms tumors are slightly more common in girls than in boys. The risk of Wilms tumor is slightly higher in Black children than in White children and is lowest among Asian American children.
Statistics related to survival for Wilms tumors are discussed in Survival Rates for Wilms Tumors.
Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics.
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2020. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2020.
Chintagumpala M, Muscal JA. Presentation, diagnosis, and staging of Wilms tumor. UpToDate. Accessed at www.uptodate.com/contents/presentation-diagnosis-and-staging-of-wilms-tumor on August 15, 2018.
Fernandez CV, Geller JI, Ehrlich PF, et al. Chapter 29: Renal Tumors. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016.
National Cancer Institute. Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®). 2018. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/types/kidney/hp/wilms-treatment-pdq on August 15, 2018.
Last Revised: January 8, 2020