Genetic Counseling and Testing for People at High Risk of Melanoma
Gene mutations (changes) that increase melanoma risk can be passed down through families, but these account for only a small portion of melanomas. You might have inherited a gene mutation that increases your risk of melanoma if any of the following apply:
- Several members on one side of your family have had melanoma
- A family member has had more than one melanoma
- A family member has had both melanoma and pancreatic cancer
- You have had more than one melanoma
Some families with high rates of melanoma have mutations in genes such as CDKN2A (also known as p16). Tests for these gene changes are now available, although they are not widely recommended by doctors at this time. In part, this is because people with any of the factors above are already known to have a higher risk of melanoma regardless of whether they carry a mutated gene, so it’s not clear how helpful the genetic testing results would be.
Still, people interested in learning whether they carry gene changes linked to melanoma may want to think about taking part in genetic research that will advance progress in this field.
If you’re considering genetic testing, it’s very important to meet first with a genetic counselor or other health professional with knowledge of genetic testing. They can describe the tests to you and explain what the results may or may not tell you about your risk. Genetic testing is not perfect, and sometimes the tests might not provide clear answers. To learn more about genetic testing in general, see Genes and Cancer.
At this time, because it’s not clear how useful the test results might be, most melanoma experts don’t recommend genetic testing for people with a personal or family history of melanoma. Still, some people may choose to get tested. In any event, people with a family history of melanoma should ask their doctor about getting regular skin exams, learning to do skin self-exams, and being particularly careful about sun safety.
Last Medical Review: May 19, 2016 Last Revised: May 20, 2016