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Many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than testicular cancer. A number of non-cancerous conditions, such as testicle injury or inflammation, can cause symptoms a lot like those of testicular cancer. Inflammation of the testicle (known as orchitis) and inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) can cause swelling and pain of the testicle. Both of these also can be caused by viral or bacterial infections.
Some men with testicular cancer have no symptoms at all, and their cancer is found during medical testing for other conditions. For instance, sometimes imaging tests done to find the cause of infertility can uncover a small testicular cancer.
But if you have any of these signs or symptoms, see your doctor right away.
Most often, the first symptom of testicular cancer is a lump on the testicle, or the testicle becomes swollen or larger. (It’s normal for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other, and for one to hang lower than the other.) Some testicular tumors might cause pain, but most of the time they don't. Men with testicular cancer can also have a feeling of heaviness or aching in the lower belly (abdomen) or scrotum.
In rare cases, germ cell tumors can make breasts grow or become sore. This happens because certain types of germ cell tumors secrete high levels of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which stimulates breast development.
Some Leydig cell tumors can make estrogens (female sex hormones), which can cause breast growth or loss of sexual desire.
Some Leydig cell tumors can make androgens (male sex hormones). Androgen-producing tumors may not cause any symptoms in men, but in boys they can cause signs of puberty at an abnormally early age, such as a deepening voice and the growth of facial and body hair.
Even if testicular cancer has spread to other parts of the body, many men might not have symptoms right away. But some men might have some of the following:
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Testicular Cancer: Symptoms and Signs. 09/2016. Accessed at www.cancer.net/cancer-types/testicular-cancer/symptoms-and-signs on April 27, 2018.
National Cancer Institute. Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version. July 7, 2016. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/types/testicular/patient/testicular-treatment-pdq on April 27, 2018.
Smith ZL, Werntz RP, Eggener SE. Testicular Cancer: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Med Clin N Am. 2018;102:251-264.
Last Revised: May 17, 2018
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