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Female Genitourinary System

The female genitourinary (GU) system includes the female genitals, reproductive organs, and urinary organs.

Female reproductive organs include the:

  • Ovaries 
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Uterus and cervix
  • Vagina and vulva

The urinary organs include the: 

  • Kidneys and ureters
  • Bladder and urethra

Ovaries are reproductive glands found only in women. The ovaries produce eggs for reproduction. The eggs travel from the ovaries through the fallopian tubes into the uterus where, if fertilized, the egg settles in and develops into a fetus. The ovaries are also the main source of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. One ovary is on each side of the uterus.

The fallopian tubes are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus.

The uterus (womb) is the female reproductive organ in which a pregnancy is carried. It is a hollow organ and about the size and shape of a medium-sized pear.

The cervix is the lower part of the uterus which connects to the vagina.

The vagina starts at the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) and opens at the vulva (the external female genitals).

The vulva is the outer part of the female genitals. The vulva includes the opening of the vagina, the labia majora (outer lips), the labia minora (inner lips), and the clitoris.

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are attached to the upper back wall of the abdomen and protected by the lower rib cage. One kidney is just to the left and the other just to the right of the backbone.

The ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

The bladder is in the lower abdomen and stores urine from the kidneys before it is released by urination.

The urethra is a tube that runs from the bladder. It expels urine through an opening to the outside of the body.

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Written by

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Last Revised: December 13, 2022