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At our National Cancer Information Center trained Cancer Information Specialists can answer questions 24 hours a day, every day of the year to empower you with accurate, up-to-date information to help you make educated health decisions. We connect patients, caregivers, and family members with valuable services and resources.
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For medical questions, we encourage you to review our information with your doctor.
Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Not all laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers can be prevented, but the risk of developing these cancers can be greatly reduced by avoiding certain risk factors such as smoking and drinking alcohol.
Tobacco use is the most important cause of these cancers. Avoiding exposure to tobacco (by not smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke) lowers the risk of these cancers. Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor on its own. It also greatly increases the cancer-causing effect of tobacco smoke. So it's especially important to avoid alcohol as well as the combination of drinking and smoking.
For people who work with chemicals linked to these cancers, having plenty of workplace ventilation and using industrial respirators are important protective measures.
Poor nutrition, excess body weight, and vitamin deficiencies have been linked to laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Following a healthy eating pattern may help lower your risk of these cancers (and many others). The American Cancer Society recommends following a healthy eating pattern that includes plenty of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, and that limits or avoids red and processed meats, sugary drinks, and highly processed foods. In general, eating a healthy diet is much better than adding vitamin supplements to an otherwise unhealthy diet. See the American Cancer Society Guidelines for Diet and Physical Activity for our full guidelines.
The risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the middle throat (oropharynx) is increased in those who have oral sex and multiple sex partners. People who smoke are more likely to get HPV infections, probably because the smoke damages their immune system or the cells that line the throat. These infections are common and rarely cause symptoms. While HPV infection is linked to some cases of cancer of the larynx, most people with HPV infections of the other parts of the throat do not go on to develop this cancer. And most cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx are not related to HPV infection.
Vaccines that reduce the risk of infection with certain types of HPV are available. At first, these vaccines were meant to lower the risk of cervical cancer, but they've also been shown to lower the risk of other cancers linked to HPV , such as cancers of the anus, penis,vulva, vagina, and mouth and throat cancers.
These vaccines are only effective if given before someone is infected with HPV, so it is recommended they be given at an early age, but certain adults can also get vaccinated. Learn more in HPV Vaccines.
The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
Chaturvedi AK, D'Souza G, Gillison ML, Katki HA. Burden of HPV-positive oropharynx cancers among ever and never smokers in the U.S. population. Oral Oncol. 2016;60:61-67. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2016.06.006.
Mowery Y, Rocco JW. Treatment of early (stage I and II) head and neck cancer: The hypopharynx. In: Shah S, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate, 2020. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-early-stage-i-and-ii-head-and-neck-cancer-the-hypopharynx. Accessed September 14, 2020.
Rock CL, Thomson C, Gansler T, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for diet and physical activity for cancer prevention. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2020;70(4). doi:10.3322/caac.21591. Accessed at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.3322/caac.21591 on June 9, 2020.
Saslow D, Andrews KS, Manassaram-Baptiste D, et al. Human papillomavirus vaccination 2020 guideline update: American Cancer Society guideline adaptation. CA Cancer J Clin. 2020; DOI: 10.3322/caac.21616.
Tumban E. A Current Update on Human Papillomavirus-Associated Head and Neck Cancers. Viruses. 2019;11(10):922. doi:10.3390/v11100922.
Last Revised: January 21, 2021
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