A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for many cancers. But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease.
Several risk factors can increase your chance of developing cervical cancer. People without any of these risk factors rarely develop cervical cancer. Although these risk factors can increase the odds of developing cervical cancer, many with these risks do not develop this disease.
When you think about risk factors, it helps to focus on those you can change or avoid (like smoking or human papillomavirus infection), rather than those you cannot (such as your age and family history). However, it is still important to know about risk factors that cannot be changed, because it's even more important for those who have these factors to get regular screening tests to find cervical cancer early.
Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer. HPV is a group of more than 150 related viruses. Some of them cause a type of growth called papillomas, which are more commonly known as warts.
Certain types of HPV may cause warts on or around the female and male genital organs and in the anal area. These are called low-risk types of HPV because they are seldom linked to cancer.
Other types of HPV are called high-risk types because they are strongly linked to cancers, including cancer of the cervix, vulva, and vagina in women, penile cancer in men, and cancers of the anus, mouth, and throat in both men and women.
Infection with HPV is common, and in most people the body can clear the infection by itself. Sometimes, however, the infection does not go away and becomes chronic. Chronic infection, especially when it is caused by certain high-risk HPV types, can eventually cause certain cancers, such as cervical cancer.
Although there is currently no cure for HPV infection, there are ways to treat the warts and abnormal cell growth that HPV causes. Also, HPV vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types.
For more information on this topic, see HPV.
Several factors related to your sexual history can increase the risk of cervical cancer. The risk is most likely affected by increasing the chances of exposure to HPV.
When someone smokes, they and those around them are exposed to many cancer-causing chemicals that affect organs other than the lungs. These harmful substances are absorbed through the lungs and carried in the bloodstream throughout the body.
Women who smoke are about twice as likely as those who don't smoke to get cervical cancer. Tobacco by-products have been found in the cervical mucus of women who smoke. Researchers believe that these substances damage the DNA of cervix cells and may contribute to the development of cervical cancer. Smoking also makes the immune system less effective in fighting HPV infections.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS, weakens the immune system and puts people at higher risk for HPV infections.
The immune system is important in destroying cancer cells and slowing their growth and spread. In women with HIV, a cervical pre-cancer might develop into an invasive cancer faster than it normally would.
Another group of women at risk for cervical cancer are those taking drugs to suppress their immune response, such as those being treated for an autoimmune disease (in which the immune system sees the body's own tissues as foreign and attacks them, as it would a germ) or those who have had an organ transplant.
Chlamydia is a relatively common kind of bacteria that can infect the reproductive system. It is spread by sexual contact. Women who are infected with chlamydia often have no symptoms and they may not know that they are infected at all unless they are tested during a pelvic exam. Chlamydia infection can cause pelvic inflammation, leading to infertility.
Some studies have seen a higher risk of cervical cancer in women whose blood tests and cervical mucus showed evidence of past or current chlamydia infection. Certain studies show that the Chlamydia bacteria may help HPV grow and live on in the cervix which may increase the risk of cervical cancer.
There is evidence that taking oral contraceptives (OCs) for a long time increases the risk of cancer of the cervix. Research suggests that the risk of cervical cancer goes up the longer a woman takes OCs, but the risk goes back down again after the OCs are stopped, and returns to normal many years after stopping.
A woman and her doctor should discuss whether the benefits of using OCs outweigh the potential risks.
Women who have had 3 or more full-term pregnancies have an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. It is thought this is probably due to the increased exposure to HPV infection with sexual activity. Also, studies have pointed to hormonal changes during pregnancy as possibly making women more susceptible to HPV infection or cancer growth. Another thought is that pregnant women might have weaker immune systems, allowing for HPV infection and cancer growth.
Women who were younger than 20 years when they had their first full-term pregnancy are more likely to get cervical cancer later in life than women who waited to get pregnant until they were 25 years or older.
Many low-income women do not have easy access to adequate health care services, including cervical cancer screening with Pap tests and HPV tests. This means they may not get screened or treated for cervical pre-cancers.
Women whose diets don’t include enough fruits and vegetables may be at increased risk for cervical cancer.
DES is a hormonal drug that was given to some women between 1938 and 1971 to prevent miscarriage. Women whose mothers took DES (when pregnant with them) develop clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina or cervix more often than would normally be expected. These types of cancer are extremely rare in women who haven’t been exposed to DES. There is about 1 case of vaginal or cervical clear-cell adenocarcinoma in every 1,000 women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy. This means that about 99.9% of "DES daughters" do not develop these cancers.
DES-related clear cell adenocarcinoma is more common in the vagina than the cervix. The risk appears to be greatest in women whose mothers took the drug during their first 16 weeks of pregnancy. The average age of women diagnosed with DES-related clear-cell adenocarcinoma is 19 years. Since the use of DES during pregnancy was stopped by the FDA in 1971, even the youngest DES daughters are older than 40 − past the age of highest risk. Still, there is no age cut-off when these women are felt to be safe from DES-related cancer. Doctors do not know exactly how long these women will remain at risk.
DES daughters may also be at increased risk of developing squamous cell cancers and pre-cancers of the cervix linked to HPV.
You can learn more in DES Exposure: Questions and Answers. Read it on our website, or call (1-800-227-2345) to have a free copy sent to you.
Cervical cancer may run in some families. If your mother or sister had cervical cancer, your chances of developing the disease are higher than if no one in the family had it. Some researchers suspect that some rare instances of this familial tendency are caused by an inherited condition that makes some women less able to fight off HPV infection than others. In other instances, women in the same family as a patient already diagnosed could be more likely to have one or more of the other non-genetic risk factors previously described in this section.
Some research suggests that women who had ever used an intrauterine device (IUD) had a lower risk of cervical cancer. The effect on risk was seen even in women who had an IUD for less than a year, and the protective effect remained after the IUDs were removed.
IUDs do have some risks. A woman interested in using an IUD should first discuss the possible risks and benefits with her doctor. Also, a woman with multiple sexual partners should use condoms to lower her risk of sexually transmitted illnesses no matter what other form of contraception she uses.
The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
Last Revised: January 3, 2020