If you are diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant, your treatment options will be more complicated because you will want to get the best treatment for your cancer while also protecting the baby. The type and timing of treatment will need to be planned carefully and coordinated between your cancer care team and your obstetrician.
When treating a pregnant woman with breast cancer, the goal is the same as when treating a non-pregnant woman: to cure the cancer whenever possible, or to control it and keep it from spreading if it can’t be cured. But the extra concern of protecting a growing fetus may make treatment more complicated.
If you are pregnant and have breast cancer, you might have hard choices to make, so get expert help and be sure you know all your options. Pregnant women can safely get treatment for breast cancer, although the types of treatment used and the timing of treatment might be affected by the pregnancy. If you are pregnant and have been diagnosed with breast cancer, your treatment recommendations will depend on:
It is generally safe to have surgery for breast cancer while you’re pregnant. Chemotherapy seems to be safe for the baby if given in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, but it isn’t safe in the first trimester. Other breast cancer treatments, such as hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy, are more likely to harm the baby and are not usually given during pregnancy.
Treatment choices can become complicated if there is a conflict between the best known treatment for the mother and the well-being of the baby. For example, if a woman is found to have breast cancer early in her pregnancy and needs chemotherapy right away, she may be advised to think about ending the pregnancy. A counselor or psychologist should also be part of your health care team to help give you the emotional support you may need.
Some older studies found that ending a pregnancy in order to have cancer treatment didn’t improve a woman’s prognosis (outlook). Even though there were flaws in these studies, ending the pregnancy is no longer routinely recommended when breast cancer is found. Still, this option may be discussed when looking at all the treatment choices available, especially for metastatic (stage IV) or aggressive cancers that may need treatment right away, such as inflammatory breast cancer.
Surgery to remove the cancer in the breast and nearby lymph nodes is a major part of treatment for any woman with early breast cancer, and generally is safe in pregnancy.
Options for breast cancer surgery might include:
The type of surgery a woman might have depends on the extent of her cancer and when the cancer is diagnosed during the pregnancy.
In addition to removing the tumor in the breast, one or more lymph nodes in the underarm area (axillary lymph nodes) also need to be removed to check if the cancer has spread. One way to do this is an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). This is often the standard procedure for pregnant women with breast cancer and removes many of the lymph nodes under the arm. Another procedure, called a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), might be an option depending on how far along you are in pregnancy and your cancer stage. SLNB allows the doctor to remove fewer nodes, but there are concerns about the effects the SLNB dye might have on the baby. Because of these concerns, most experts recommend that SLNB only be used in certain situations such as later in pregnancy, and that the blue dye not be used during the procedure.
Surgery for breast cancer generally carries little risk to the baby. But there are certain times in pregnancy when anesthesia (the drugs used to make you sleep for surgery) may be risky for the baby.
Your surgeon and anesthesiologist, along with a high-risk obstetrician (OB), will need to work together to decide the best time during pregnancy to operate. If the surgery is done later in the pregnancy, your obstetrician may be there just in case there are any problems with the baby during surgery. Together, your doctors will decide which anesthesia drugs and techniques are the safest for both you and the baby.
Depending on the cancer’s stage, you may need more treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapy after surgery to help lower the risk of the cancer coming back. This is called adjuvant treatment. In some cases, this treatment can be put off until after delivery.
Chemotherapy (chemo) may be used after surgery (as adjuvant treatment) for some earlier stages of breast cancer. It also can be used by itself for more advanced cancers.
Chemo is not given during the first 3 months (first trimester) of pregnancy. Because a lot of the baby’s development occurs during this time, the safety of chemo hasn’t been studied in the first trimester. The risk of miscarriage (losing the baby) is also the greatest during this time.
For many years, it was thought that all chemo would harm an unborn baby no matter when it was given. But studies have shown that certain chemo drugs (such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, and the taxanes) used during the second and third trimesters (months 4 through 9 of pregnancy) don’t raise the risk of birth defects, stillbirths, or health problems shortly after birth, though they may increase the risk of early delivery. Researchers still don’t know if these children will have any long-term effects.
If you have early breast cancer and you need chemo after surgery (adjuvant chemo), it will usually be delayed until at least your second trimester. If you are already in the third trimester when the cancer is found, chemo may be delayed until after birth. The birth may be induced (brought on) a few weeks early in some women. These same treatment plans may also be used for women with more advanced cancer.
Chemo is generally not recommended after 35 weeks of pregnancy or within 3 weeks of delivery because it can lower the mother’s blood cell counts. This could cause bleeding and increase the chances of infection during birth. Holding off on chemo for the last few weeks before delivery allows the mother’s blood counts to return to normal before childbirth.
Some treatments for breast cancer can harm the baby and are not safe during pregnancy. If these treatments are needed, they are usually scheduled after the baby is born.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy to the breast is often used after breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) to help reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The high doses of radiation used for this can harm the baby any time during pregnancy. This may cause miscarriage, birth defects, slow fetal growth, or a higher risk of childhood cancer. Because of this, doctors don’t use radiation treatment during pregnancy.
For some women whose cancer is found later in the pregnancy, it may be possible to have a lumpectomy during pregnancy and then wait until after the baby is born to get radiation therapy. But this treatment approach has not been well-studied. Waiting too long to start radiation can increase the chance of the cancer coming back.
Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy is often used as treatment after surgery or as treatment for advanced breast cancer in women with hormone receptor-positive (estrogen or progesterone) breast cancer. Hormone therapy drugs used for breast cancer include tamoxifen, anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane.
Hormone therapy should not be given during pregnancy because it can affect the baby. It should be delayed until after the woman has given birth.
Targeted therapy: Drugs that target HER2, such as trastuzumab (Herceptin), pertuzumab (Perjeta), ado-trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla) and lapatinib (Tykerb), are important in treating HER2-positive breast cancers. In women who aren’t pregnant, trastuzumab is used as a part of treatment after surgery, pertuzumab can be used with trastuzumab before surgery, and all of these drugs can be useful in treating advanced cancer. But based on studies of women who were treated during pregnancy, none of these drugs are considered safe for the baby if taken during pregnancy.
Everolimus (Afinitor) and palbociclib (Ibrance) are also targeted drugs that can be used with hormone therapy to treat advanced breast cancer. Again, these and other targeted drugs are thought to be unsafe to use during pregnancy.
Most doctors recommend that women who have just had babies and are about to be treated for breast cancer should stop (or not start) breastfeeding. Many chemo, hormone, and targeted therapy drugs can enter breast milk and be passed on to the baby. Breastfeeding isn't recommended if you are being treated with systemic drugs and sometimes shouldn't be restarted for months after treatment has ended, Sometimes, if a woman has hormone-positive breast cancer, she might be given drugs to stop the production of breast milk.
If breast surgery is planned, stopping breastfeeding will help reduce blood flow to the breasts and make them smaller. This can help with the operation. It also helps reduce the risk of infection in the breast and can help avoid breast milk collecting in biopsy or surgery areas.
If you have questions, such as when it might be safe to start breastfeeding, talk with your health care team. If you plan to start breastfeeding after you’ve stopped for a while, plan ahead. Breastfeeding (lactation) experts can give you extra help if you need it.
Pregnancy can make it harder to find, diagnose, and treat breast cancer. Most studies have found that the outcomes among pregnant and non-pregnant women with breast cancer are about the same for cancers found at the same stage.
Some doctors believe that ending the pregnancy may help slow the course of more advanced breast cancers, and they may recommend that for some women with advanced breast cancer. It’s hard to do research in this area, and good, unbiased studies don’t exist. Ending the pregnancy makes treatment simpler, but so far no evidence shows that ending the pregnancy improves a woman’s overall survival or cancer outcome.
Studies have not shown that the treatment delays that are sometimes needed during pregnancy have an effect on breast cancer outcome, either. But this, too, has proven to be a difficult area to study. Finally, there are no reports showing that breast cancer itself can harm the baby.
Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
Abdel-Hady el-S, Hemida RA, Gamal A, et al. Cancer during pregnancy: Perinatal outcome after in utero exposure to chemotherapy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286:283-286.
Ali SA, Gupta S, Sehgal R, Vogel V. Survival outcomes in pregnancy associated breast cancer: A retrospective case control study. Breast J. 2012;18:139-144.
Amant F, von Minckwitz G, Han SN, et al. Prognosis of women with primary breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy: Results from an international collaborative study. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:2532-2539.
Bae SY, Jung SP, Jung ES, Park SM, Lee SK, Yu JH et al. Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer: Poor Survival of Luminal B Subtype. Oncology. 2018;95(3):163-169.
Castillo JJ, Rizack T. Chapter 61: Special Issues in Pregnancy. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Dorshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa. Elsevier: 2020.
Donnelly EH, Smith JM, Farfán EB, Ozcan I. Prenatal radiation exposure: Background material for counseling pregnant patients following exposure to radiation. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5:62-68.
Filippakis GM, Zografos G. Contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy: Are there any really? World J Surg Oncol. 2007;5:10.
Guidroz JA, Scott-Conner CEH, Weigel RJ. Management of pregnant women with breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2011;103:337-340.
Harlow SP and Weaver DL. Overview of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. In Chen W, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate, 2021. https://www.uptodate.com. Last updated October 06, 2020. Accessed August 24, 2021.
Henry NL, Shah PD, Haider I, Freer PE, Jagsi R, Sabel MS. Chapter 88: Cancer of the Breast. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2020.
Jagsi R, King TA, Lehman C, Morrow M, Harris JR, Burstein HJ. Chapter 79: Malignant Tumors of the Breast. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2019.
Johansson ALV, Andersson TM, Hsieh CC, Jirström K, Cnattingius S, Fredriksson I, et al. Tumor characteristics and prognosis in women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2018 Apr 1;142(7):1343-1354.
Litton JK. Gestational breast cancer: Treatment. In Vora SR, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate, 2021. https://www.uptodate.com. Last updated November 19, 2020. Accessed August 24, 2021.
Loibl S, Han SN, von Minckwitz G, et al. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy: An observational study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:887-896.
McGrath SE, Ring A. Chemotherapy for breast cancer in pregnancy: evidence and guidance for oncologists. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2011;3(2):73–83.
Murphy CG, Mallam D, Stein S, et al. Current or recent pregnancy is associated with adverse pathologic features but not impaired survival in early breast cancer. Cancer. 2012;118:3254-3259.
Murthy RK, Theriault RL, Barnett CM, et al. Outcomes of children exposed in utero to chemotherapy for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2014;16(6):500. Published 2014 Dec 30.
National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy – Health Professional Version. 2019. Accessed at https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/pregnancy-breast-treatment-pdq on August 27, 2021.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Breast Cancer. Version 7.2021. Accessed at https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/breast.pdf on August 24, 2021.
Petrek JA, Dukoff R, Rogatko A. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Cancer. 1991, Cancer. 1991;67:869-872.
Simoes E, Graf J, Sokolov AN, Grischke EM, Hartkopf AD, Hahn M1 et al. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: maternal breast cancer survival over 10 years and obstetrical outcome at a university centre of women's health. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2018 Aug;298(2):363-372.
Zagouri F, Psaltopoulou T, Dimitrakakis C, Bartsch R, Dimopoulos MA. Challenges in managing breast cancer during pregnancy. J Thorac Dis. 2013;5(Suppl 1):S62-67.
Zagouri F, Sergentanis TN, Chrysikos D, et al.: Trastuzumab administration during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 137 (2): 349-57, 2013.
Last Revised: October 27, 2021