PDFs by language
Our 24/7 cancer helpline provides support for people dealing with cancer. We can connect you with trained cancer information specialists who will answer questions about a cancer diagnosis and provide guidance and a compassionate ear.
Chat live online
Select the Live Chat button at the bottom of the page
At our National Cancer Information Center trained Cancer Information Specialists can answer questions 24 hours a day, every day of the year to empower you with accurate, up-to-date information to help you make educated health decisions. We connect patients, caregivers, and family members with valuable services and resources.
Or ask us how you can get involved and support the fight against cancer. Some of the topics we can assist with include:
For medical questions, we encourage you to review our information with your doctor.
Researcher: Ying Wang, PhD
Institution: American Cancer Society
Area of Focus: Epidemiology Research, Population Science
“We studied 1,275 metabolites and found 24 associated with a higher or lower risk for developing breast cancer after menopause. Our findings of an increased risk for 3 hormonal metabolites confirms findings from earlier studies.
“The other 21 were new, including a polyphenol metabolite that’s linked with eating fruit, and a decreased risk for developing breast cancer. Now, these new metabolites need to be confirmed by other studies, and all need more analysis so we can better understand their role in the development of breast cancer.”
The Challenge: The development of breast cancer has historically been 2 to 3 times higher in developed nations, including the United States, Australia, and Japan, compared to developing ones, including Ethiopia, Afghanistan, and Haiti. By the early 2000s, epidemiologists had identified risk factors for breast cancer that explain up to half of the excess risk within developed nations. Explanations for the remaining half, however, are still unclear.
Some evidence indicates that a cell's metabolism—how it synthesizes and breaks down fatty acids, for instance—may be important to the development of breast cancer. More recently, researchers have found an association between breast cancer and many different metabolites, that are either synthesized by the human body, or derived, from diet.
The Research: American Cancer Society (ACS) researcher Ying Wang, PhD, recently collaborated with fellow researchers from the ACS, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and two other institutions to use metabolomics to identify risk factors for breast cancer. Metabolomics is the study of small molecules that result from a cell’s metabolism, called metabolites. The body makes and stores metabolites as it breaks down food, drugs, or its own tissue. Metabolites are affected by the environment and diseases like cancer.
They used survey data and blood samples from participants in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort. One group included 782 postmenopausal women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and the other included 782 women who did not have breast cancer. Their average age was 68 and 98% of them were White.
The researchers measured the levels of 1,275 metabolites in the women’s blood samples that were taken before any diagnosis of cancer.
To gauge the women’s risks for breast cancer, they used these measurements along with answers to survey questions about known risks for breast cancer. Some of the data they received from the surveys included BMI, the age they started their periods, the number of children they gave birth to and the age they were when they delivered them, and the age they reached menopause.
Then they compared this blood and survey data between the women who did and didn’t develop breast cancer.
They published their findings in the journal Metabolites. They found levels of 24 distinct metabolites were associated with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
Why Does it Matter? These findings contribute to growing data on a link between certain metabolites and breast cancer. The results point out metabolites that deserve future validation efforts.
The results of this study suggest the pathways of these metabolites might be new targets for prevention efforts, and knowing these metabolites could help improve breast cancer risk-prediction models.