Disproven or Controversial Breast Cancer Risk Factors
There are many factors that research has shown are not linked to breast cancer. You may see information online or hear about these disproven or controversial risk factors, but it is important to learn the facts.
Internet and e-mail rumors have suggested that chemicals in underarm antiperspirants are absorbed through the skin, interfere with lymph circulation, and cause toxins to build up in the breast, eventually leading to breast cancer.
Based on the available evidence (including what we know about how the body works), there is little if any reason to believe that antiperspirants increase the risk of breast cancer. For more information, see our page about antiperspirants and breast cancer risk.
Internet and e-mail rumors and at least one book have suggested that bras cause breast cancer by obstructing lymph flow. There is no good scientific or clinical basis for this claim, and a recent study of more than 1,500 women found no association between wearing a bra and breast cancer risk.
Several studies have provided very strong data that neither induced abortions nor spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) have an overall effect on the risk of breast cancer. For more detailed information, see Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk.
Several studies have found that breast implants do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although silicone breast implants can cause scar tissue to form in the breast. Implants make breast tissue harder to see on standard mammograms, but additional x-ray pictures called implant displacement views can be used to examine the breast tissue more completely.
Breast implants might be linked to a rare type of lymphoma called anaplastic large cell lymphoma. This lymphoma has rarely been found in the breast tissue around the implants. So far, though, there are too few cases to know if the risk of this lymphoma is really higher in women with implants.
Bra Wearing Not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Case–Control Study. Lu Chen, Kathleen E. Malone, and Christopher I. Li. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; Published OnlineFirst September 5, 2014; doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0414
Last Medical Review: June 1, 2016 Last Revised: August 18, 2016
- Breast Cancer Risk Factors You Cannot Change
- Lifestyle-related Breast Cancer Risk Factors
- Factors with Unclear Effects on Breast Cancer Risk
- Disproven or Controversial Breast Cancer Risk Factors
- Deciding Whether to Use Medicine to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk
- Tamoxifen and Raloxifene for Breast Cancer Prevention
- Aromatase Inhibitors for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk
- Preventive Surgery to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk