Cancer Facts for Lesbians and Bisexual Women

Protect yourself and the people you care about.

Some of the most common types of cancer among women are breast, colon, endometrial (uterine), cervical, lung, and skin cancer. Knowing about these cancers and what you can do to help prevent them or find them early (when they're small and easier to treat) may help save your life.

Recognizing barriers

Studies have found that lesbians and bisexual women get less routine health care than other women, including colon, breast, and cervical cancer screening tests.1, 2 Some of the reasons for this include:

  • Low rates of health insurance: Many health insurance policies don’t cover unmarried partners. This makes it harder for many lesbians and bisexual women to get quality health care.1
  • Fear of discrimination: Many women don’t tell their health care providers about their sexual orientation, because they don’t want discrimination to affect the quality of health care they receive. This can make it harder to have a comfortable relationship with a provider.1
  • Negative experiences with health care providers: Fear of having a negative experience with a health care provider can lead some women to delay or avoid medical care, especially routine care such as early detection tests. Missing routine cancer screening tests can lead to cancer being diagnosed at a later stage, when it’s often harder to treat.1

There are many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT)-friendly providers. An LGBT community center or group may be able to refer you to one of these providers. Don’t give up – find the respectful care you deserve!

The American Cancer Society can help you learn more about the cancers that women are most at risk for, as well as how to find these cancers early. All women can do things to help reduce their cancer risk and be healthy.

Breast cancer

Who is at risk?

The 2 biggest risk factors for breast cancer are being a woman and getting older. A woman whose mother, sister, or daughter has or had breast cancer is at higher risk. Being overweight, especially after menopause, or drinking alcohol may add to the risk. Women who haven’t had children and haven’t breast-fed, and are older when they first give birth – all factors more likely to affect lesbians and bisexual women – are also at a slightly higher risk.1

What you can do

The American Cancer Society recommends the following guidelines for breast cancer early detection for women at average risk:

Women ages 40 to 44 have the choice to start annual breast cancer screening with mammograms if they wish to do so.

Women age 45 to 54 should get mammograms every year.

Women 55 and older should switch to mammograms every 2 years, or can continue yearly screening.

Screening should continue as long as a woman is in good health and is expected to live at least 10 more years.

All women should be familiar with the known benefits, limitations, and potential harms linked to breast cancer screening.

Women should also be familiar with how their breasts normally look and feel and report any changes to a health care provider right away.

Some women at high risk for breast cancer – because of their family history, a genetic tendency, or certain other factors – should be screened with MRIs along with mammograms. Talk with a health care provider about your breast cancer risk and the best screening plan for you.

Colon cancer

Who is at risk?

Most colorectal cancers (commonly called colon cancers) are found in people age 50 and older. People with a personal or family history of the disease, colon or rectal polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease are at greater risk. Being overweight, a diet high in red and processed meats, alcohol use, smoking, and being inactive also increase risk.

What you can do

Colon cancer almost always starts with a polyp – a small growth on the lining of the colon or rectum. Testing can often find polyps before they become cancer. If pre-cancerous polyps are removed, colon cancer can be prevented. If colon cancer is found during testing, it is more likely to be at an early stage and easier to treat. 

For people at average risk of colon and rectal cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends starting regular screening at age 45. People older than 75 should talk with their health care provider about whether continuing screening is right for them.

Screening can be done either with a sensitive test that looks for signs of cancer in a person’s stool (a stool-based test), or with an exam that looks at the colon and rectum (a visual exam).

Stool-based tests

  • Yearly fecal immunochemical test (FIT) *, or
  • Yearly guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) *, or
  • Multi-targeted stool DNA test (MT-sDNA) every 3 years*

Visual (structural) exams of the colon and rectum

  • Colonoscopy every 10 years, or
  • CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy) every 5 years*, or
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years*

*If a person chooses to be screened with a test other than colonoscopy, any abnormal test result should be followed up with colonoscopy.

If you are at high risk of colon cancer based on family history or other factors, you may need to start testing before age 45. Talk to a health care provider about your risk for colon cancer to know when you should start testing.

Gynecological cancers

Who is at risk?

The 3 most common types of cancer of the female reproductive organs (gynecological cancers) are cervical, endometrial (uterine), and ovarian cancer.3

Cervical cancer can affect any woman who is – or has been – sexually active with a man or a woman. It occurs in women who have had a virus called HPV (human papilloma virus), though most women with HPV don’t develop cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is also more likely in women who smoke, have HIV or AIDS, or don’t get regular Pap tests.

Endometrial cancer starts in the lining of the uterus. Hormone balance plays a part in the development of most endometrial cancers. This cancer is more likely in women who have taken estrogen therapy without progesterone, are obese, have never been pregnant, have never taken oral contraceptives, have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), or have a family history of Lynch syndrome (also called hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer or HNPCC).

Ovarian cancer is more likely to occur in women as they get older. Women who have never been pregnant; are obese; have had breast cancer or a family history of breast, ovarian, or colon cancer; have never taken oral contraceptives; have taken androgens (male hormones); or have taken estrogen therapy without progesterone are at higher risk for ovarian cancer.

What you can do

The Pap test is used to find cervical cancer; it does not find endometrial or ovarian cancer. The Pap test can find changes in the cervix before they become cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends that, starting at age 21, all women begin cervical cancer testing by getting a Pap test every 3 years.

Starting at age 30, the preferred way to screen is with a Pap test combined with an HPV test every 5 years. This should be done until age 65. Another reasonable option for women ages 30 to 65 is to get tested every 3 years with just the Pap test.

Protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases by using dental dams and condoms during sex. This may also help reduce your exposure to HPV.

Be aware of symptoms of endometrial and cervical cancers, such as unusual vaginal discharge, spotting, or bleeding. Ovarian cancers tend to cause vague symptoms, such as swelling in the belly, unusual vaginal bleeding, pelvic pressure, back pain, leg pain, or digestive problems. See a health care provider if you have any of these symptoms.

Lung cancer

Who is at risk?

People who smoke are at greatest risk for lung cancer. Current evidence suggests that lesbians and bisexual women are about twice as likely to smoke compared to heterosexual women.2 Smoking is responsible for 80% of lung cancer deaths in the US.3 Smoking is also linked to many other types of cancer and causes other tobacco-related diseases, too, such as heart disease, bronchitis, stroke, and emphysema.

What you can do

Lung cancer can often be prevented simply by not smoking. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. It’s also important to reduce your exposure to secondhand smoke by seeking smoke-free places. If you or a loved one smokes, talk to a health care provider about quitting, or call 1-800-227-2345 to find out how we can help increase the chances of quitting for good.

If you are a current or former smoker aged 55 to 74 years and in fairly good health, you might benefit from screening for lung cancer with a yearly low-dose CT scan (LDCT). The American Cancer Society recommends screening for certain people at higher risk for lung cancer. Talk to a health care provider about your risk of lung cancer, and about the possible benefits, limits, and harms of getting tested for early lung cancer.

Skin cancer

Who is at risk?

Anyone who spends a lot of time in the sun is at risk for skin cancer. People with fair skin, especially those with blond or red hair, are at greater risk than people with darker coloring. Those who have weakened immune systems or close family members with skin cancer are also at a higher risk for skin cancer.

What you can do

Here are some things you can do to help prevent skin cancer:

  • Limit the time spent in the sun, especially from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., when its rays are strongest.
  • Protect your skin by wearing hats with wide brims, long-sleeved shirts, and sunglasses when you are outside.
  • Use broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher on all exposed skin. Always follow the label directions when applying. Be sure to wear sunscreen on cloudy or overcast days, too, because UV rays travel through clouds.
  • Avoid other sources of UV light, like tanning beds and sun lamps. These are dangerous and can damage your skin.
  • Know your skin, and report any skin changes to a health care provider. Have a skin exam done during your regular health check-ups.

The take-away

The LGBT communities have a higher incidence of many risk factors linked to cancer. Change those you can, and encourage the people you care about to do the same:

  • Quit smoking and/or stay away from secondhand smoke.
  • Get to and/or stay at a healthy weight.
  • Limit alcohol to 1 drink per day, if you drink at all.

These are some other things you can do to be healthy and help prevent cancer:

  • Eat a healthy diet with an emphasis on whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Be physically active.
  • Limit sedentary behaviors such as sitting, lying down, watching TV, and other forms of screen-based entertainment.

It's also important to see a health care provider on a regular basis. Learn about the benefits and limitations of testing for cancer early, then get the tests that are right for you. Remember, early detection – finding cancer while it's small, before you have symptoms, and before it has spread – gives you the best chance of getting treatment that works.

Knowing about these cancers and what you can do to help reduce your risk for cancer or find it early may help save your life or the life of someone you love.

To learn more about what you can do to be healthy and help reduce your cancer risk, visit or call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. We're here when you need us.

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

1 Quinn GP, Sanchez JA, Sutton SK, et al. Cancer and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/Transsexual, and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Populations. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65:384-400.

2 Blosnich JR, Farmer GW, Lee JG, Silenzio VM, Bowen DJ. Health inequalities among sexual minority adults: Evidence from ten U.S. states, 2010. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46(4):337-349.

3 American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2016.

Last Medical Review: August 2, 2016 Last Revised: May 30, 2018

American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy.